There three influences have changed the content and characteristic of the Keltic language, the original language of English. It was a pre-historical period. Since then, Latin element began to enter into the then language of England.
This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today. The Indo-European family includes several major branches: Latin and the modern Romance languages French etc. The influence of the original Indo-European language can be seen today, even though no written record of it exists.
The word for father, for example, is vater in German, pater in Latin, and pitr in Sanskrit. These words are all cognates, similar words in different languages that share the same root. Of these branches of the Indo-European family, two are, as far as the study of the development of English is concerned, of paramount importance, the Germanic and the Romance called that because the Romance languages derive from Latin, the language of ancient Rome.
English is a member of the Germanic group of languages. It is believed that this group began as a common language in the Elbe river region about 3, years ago.
By the second century BC, this Common Germanic language had split into three distinct sub-groups: East Germanic was spoken by peoples who migrated back to southeastern Europe.
No East Germanic language is spoken today, and the only written East Germanic language that survives is Gothic. North Germanic evolved into the modern Scandinavian languages of Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic but not Finnish, which is related to Hungarian and Estonian and is not an Indo-European language.
They spoke a mutually intelligible language, similar to modern Frisian - the language of the northeastern region of the Netherlands - that is called Old English.
These invaders pushed the original, Celtic-speaking inhabitants out of what is now England into Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland, leaving behind a few Celtic words. Cornish, unfortunately, is, in linguistic terms, now a dead language.
The last native Cornish speaker died in Also influencing English at this time were the Vikings. Norse invasions and settlement, beginning aroundbrought many North Germanic words into the language, particularly in the north of England.
The majority of words in modern English come from foreign, not Old English roots.
In fact, only about one sixth of the known Old English words have descendants surviving today. But this is deceptive; Old English is much more important than these statistics would indicate. About half of the most commonly used words in modern English have Old English roots.
Words like be, water, and strong, for example, derive from Old English roots. Old English, whose best known surviving example is the poem Beowulflasted until about Shortly after the most important event in the development and history of the English language, the Norman Conquest.
The new overlords spoke a dialect of Old French known as Anglo-Norman. The Normans were also of Germanic stock "Norman" comes from "Norseman" and Anglo-Norman was a French dialect that had considerable Germanic influences in addition to the basic Latin roots.
Prior to the Norman Conquest, Latin had been only a minor influence on the English language, mainly through vestiges of the Roman occupation and from the conversion of Britain to Christianity in the seventh century ecclesiastical terms such as priest, vicar, and mass came into the language this waybut now there was a wholesale infusion of Romance Anglo-Norman words.
The influence of the Normans can be illustrated by looking at two words, beef and cow. Beef, commonly eaten by the aristocracy, derives from the Anglo-Norman, while the Anglo-Saxon commoners, who tended the cattle, retained the Germanic cow.
Many legal terms, such as indict, juryand verdict have Anglo-Norman roots because the Normans ran the courts. This split, where words commonly used by the aristocracy have Romantic roots and words frequently used by the Anglo-Saxon commoners have Germanic roots, can be seen in many instances.
Sometimes French words replaced Old English words; crime replaced firen and uncle replaced eam.The Old English period is considered to have evolved into the Middle English period some time after the Norman conquest of , when the language came to be influenced significantly by the new ruling class's language, Old Norman.
Latin has influenced the English language tremendously. Most of the influence, however, has been indirect. The indirect effect of Latin on English came mainly after the Normans invaded England in. History of Greek and Latin Influences The English Language B.C.
Roman Empire *Educated people in western part of Roman Empire spoke Latin A.D. A Brief History of the English Language. English is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward lausannecongress2018.com traces Western civilization (as well as the Islamic and Mongolian conquests) from the height of the Roman Empire to the fall of lausannecongress2018.com I was published in and went through six printings.
Volumes II and III were published in ; volumes IV, V, and VI in – While English has hundreds of words that originate in Latin, the language of the Romans had a much greater impact on the tongues of the French, Spanish, Italians, Portuguese, and Romanians.