Daniel Chandler Introduction If you go into a bookshop and ask them where to find a book on semiotics you are likely to meet with a blank look. Even worse, you might be asked to define what semiotics is - which would be a bit tricky if you were looking for a beginner's guide. It's worse still if you do know a bit about semiotics, because it can be hard to offer a simple definition which is of much use in the bookshop.
Oldest known rock about million B. These dates may be as much as ten per cent. That is to say, 60, years ago our ancestors were mammals, probably not unlike lemurs, , years ago amphibians somewhat resembling newts or mud-puppies, and , years ago very primitive fish, combining some of the characters of sharks and lampreys.
The origin of life on our planet was probably over a thousand million years ago, so that the record furnished by fossils only refers to half—perhaps much less than half of the time during which life has existed.
If all the lead in our planet is of radio-active origin, which is rather unlikely, it can hardly be more than eight thousand million years old.
Astronomical evidence points to a somewhat smaller age.
As the earth goes round, the moon, and to a lesser extent the sun, raise tides in the sea. The moon thus acts as a brake on the earth, and by so doing is pushed onwards in its orbit, and moves further away.
If we calculate backwards instead of forwards we find both the day and the month becoming shorter, until at a sufficiently early date they possessed the same length of about four hours, and the moon was so near to the earth as to be practically touching it.
At present the main retarding action takes place in the Bering Sea. At a geological epoch characterised by many shallow and partly land-locked seas tidal friction must have been greater than now, at other times less. So we can only say that the moon was born somewhere about four thousand million years ago, but the true figure might be as low as one thousand million, or as high as twenty thousand.
The birth of the moon was only one event in a greater catastrophe. Our sun, after a relatively brief period, probably a few thousand million years or less, of youthful exuberance as a giant star radiating energy at thousands of times its present rate, settled down as a respectable dwarf, which it now is, and has been throughout geological time.
For many thousands of millions of years it probably shone as a lonely star unaccompanied by planets.
Then it appears to have passed near to another, probably heavier star, which raised tidal waves in it. The detached crests of these waves, or one of them, formed the planets, and it is fairly clear that the moon broke off from the earth within a few years of its formation.
It can be calculated that it has not been going round the sun for more than ten or less than one thousand million years. Various other lines of evidence converge to a date somewhere between 8,, and 1,, B. If science continues we shall arrive at the exact date in the following way. The star in question must be very far away by now.
It is a wise child that knows its own father, and we shall probably not know ours for thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. It is possible to penetrate still further into the past and to arrive at a very rough date for the origin of the sun.
But any such date depends on some particular hypothesis as to the origin of stellar energy, and there are several such hypotheses, leading to very different dates. On the other hand a number of independent arguments, based on well-ascertained facts, converge to the same date for the origin of the earth.
There are, of course, respectable scientific theories, such as the planetesimal, which lead to different conclusions.We have been concentrating on beginners’ Italian in our language lessons so far but we know that some of you are quite advanced in your Italian studies.
So we are going to give you some “link phrases” that you can use in discursive essays or in formal discussion situations. Learn to describe yourself in Italian with this free audio lesson from Rocket Italian. You can listen to the native speakers’ Italian pronunciation, follow the English translation, and practice speaking the .
When you get to the point where you want to read fiction and essays in Italian, these suggestions can help you approach such texts as a learner: 14 Great Learning Books for All Students of Italian. This book provides short texts for upper-beginner and intermediate Italian learners on a variety of subjects that would be of interest to.
Free Essay: Dogma Rules Add “Character” to Italian for Beginners Art films are different from mainstream films in many aspects including acting, plot, and. Free Italian topics for learners.
Our Italian topics are made up of 10 items (Beginner) or 20 items (Intermediate) of Italian (both the written text and a recording of a Italian person speaking the word / words) with a picture that illustrates that vocabulary. Italian grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Italian language.
The Italian language is based on the following categories: articles, adjectives, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions.