Erik erikson psychological theory of development

Erikson was a psychoanalyst and also a humanitarian. Fans of Freud will find the influence useful. Aside from Freudian psychoanalysis, Erikson developed his theory mainly from his extensive practical field research, initially with Native American communities, and then also from his clinical therapy work attached to leading mental health centres and universities. Both Erikson and his wife Joan, who collaborated as psychoanalysts and writers, were passionately interested in childhood development, and its effects on adult society.

Erik erikson psychological theory of development

Critical Evaluation

I have had to make a virtue out of a constitutional necessity by basing what I have to say on representative description rather than on theoretical argument. According to Hoarehe may have developed a sense of alienation because he was taunted as being a gentile by Jewish community and being a Jew and Dane by Germans.

Erik erikson psychological theory of development

After immigrating to United States inErikson worked as a clinician throughout his life and expressed his views on public matters Greene, And he achieved this prominence without ever earning a university degree.

On the other hand it is widely acknowledged that external conditions are necessary and that personality development is the result of the interaction between internal and external conditions Geulen, Erikson proposed that each of the eight psychosocial stages provides an opportunity to develop our basic strengths.

These strengths, or virtues, emerge once the crisis has been resolved satisfactorily. The potential for these conflicts exists at birth as innate predispositions; these will become prominent at different stages when our environment demands certain adaptations.

Each confrontation with our environment is called a crisis. Evaluation Although, Erikson theory developed out of psychoanalysis, it offers a much wider and more comprehensive view of humanity. Instead of seeing psychosexual problems as a center of 5 development, Erikson builds his theory around psychosocial crises, which always contains both negative and positive possibilities Louw, Erikson does seem to have captured many of the central issues in life in his eight psychological stages.

In fact, we see just how stimulating his ideas have been as the emotional development of infants, the growth of self concept in childhood and identity crisis facing adolescents and the influence of friends and playmates on social and personality development Shaffer, Erikson noted the potentially strong impact of peer groups on the development of ego identity in adolescence.

We are capable of resolving each situation in a way that is adaptive and strengthening. During the first four stages, the experiences to which we are exposed through parents, teachers, peer groups, and various opportunities are largely beyond our control.

Psychosocial Approach In general, Erikson believed that personality is affected more by learning and experience than by heredity. Psychosocial experiences, not instinctual biological forces, are the greater determinant.

However, Erikson proposed that personality development also begins with three social drives: A need for social attention 2.

The idea that thought was social in origin and not removed from social and cultural conditions has made an important contribution to the study of nature of mental health Greene, Third, Erikson recognized the impact on personality of cultural and historical forces. He argued that we are not governed entirely by innate biological factors at work in childhood.

A second critical difference between Erikson and Freud is that Erikson places much less emphasis on sexual urges and far more emphasis on social and cultural influences that Freud did.


Empirical research on socialization has convincingly demonstrated that 1 there are many external factors which determine human development, 2 these factors qualitatively and decisevely influence the direction and course of development, 3 they affect all aspects of personality, 4 they are in effect throughout the entire life span, and 5 they are contingent, that is they depend upon parameters of the social system and are subject to historical change Geulen, Erik Erikson (15 June – 12 May ) was a Danish-German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings.

Erikson's now-famous concept of the life cycle delineates eight stages of psychological development through which each of us progresses.

Erikson's Psychosocial theory of human development Thus his theory is generally called a psychosocial theory of personality development. According to him, the stages are universal, and the ages at which one is said to have passed from one to another stage are also fairly universal.

The last stage, old age, challenges the individual to rework the past while remaining involved in the present. Erik Erikson was an ego psychologist who developed one of the most popular and influential theories of development.

Erik Erikson's Theory of Development: A Teacher's Observations

While his theory was impacted by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud's work, Erikson's theory centered on psychosocial development rather than psychosexual stages that make up his theory are as follows.

Erik Erikson was a psychologist who did most of his work in the post-Freudian era, in the s to the s.

Erik erikson psychological theory of development

He was a student of Freud, and was greatly influenced by the latter's theories of personality development. \"Advantages And Disadvantages Of Psychosocial Theories. Theory. Erikson is a Freudian means that he accepts Freud's ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable ideas such as the Oedipal complex, and accepts as well the ideas about the ego that were added by other Freudian loyalists such .

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