Acc 403 week 6 quiz

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Acc 403 week 6 quiz

CPB - Homocysteine Testing. Background Adverse drug reactions ADRs are responsible for many debilitating side effects and are a major cause of death following drug therapy. Additionally, some tests may help provide information on how well a specific treatment may work for an individual. Genotyping for Cytochrome P Polymorphisms Cytochrome P enzymes are a group of enzymes that account for approximately 75 percent of drug metabolism in the human body.

The action of the P enzymes affects the blood levels of many drugs. Genotyping for cytochrome P has been proposed for possible use in medical management of drug therapies including, but not limited to, antidepressants, antiepileptic, antipsychotics, barbituates, clopidogrel, opioid analgesics, proton pump inhibitors, tamoxifen or warfarin.

Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacodynamic Testing - Medical Clinical Policy Bulletins | Aetna

Recent advances in molecular biology have improved the understanding of genetic factors underlying many ADRs. Until recently, investigations in this field have generally centered on gene coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Inactivating mutations have been found in gene coding for enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P CYP system, which is important in the hepatic metabolism of many drugs. Individuals with a lack of functional activity in these enzymes should be treated with very low doses of drugs metabolized by the same enzyme to avoid excessive drug levels and thus toxic effects.

In recent years, research has been focused on gene coding for drug targets.

Acc 403 week 6 quiz

As a result, most studies have been performed on single genes known to be or assumed to be functionally related to a given ADR. An alternative method is testing for complex single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be associated with ADRs, although the functional relationship between them may be completely unknown.

Thus, there is a need for well-designed clinical trials to ascertain the extent of environmental influences on the ADRs for which a genetic basis has been implicated Guzey and Spigset, The major impact to date of polymorphic CYP expression has been on pre-clinical drug development.

The direct clinical impact of CYP polymorphisms on prediction of ADRs, however, has been limited mainly because published reports have been small and retrospective and their findings conflicting.

Moreover, the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of pre-prescription genotyping for CYP polymorphisms has not been established. Tentative estimates of how CYP2C9 genotyping might be applied to dose adjustments in clinical therapy were based on dose-related pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance or trough drug concentrations.

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In these cases in which individual dosages are derived from clinical drug effects, such as for oral anticoagulants, the pharmacogenetics-based dose adjustments showed a good correlation with the genotype-specific empirically derived doses.

In addition to its role in pharmacokinetics, CYP2C9 contributes to the metabolism of fatty acids, prostanoids, and steroid hormones, and it may catalyze potentially toxic bioactivation reactions. However, the current understanding of the role of CYP2C9 in biotransformation of endogenous signaling molecules and in drug toxicity is relatively meager.

Acc 403 week 6 quiz

These investigators concluded that the concept of therapy based on genotyping for CYP polymorphisms has not been assessed in prospective, randomized, controlled studies in which one group is dosed according to genotype while another group is dosed in a usual manner. It is unlikely that CYP2C9 genotyping will become routine practice unless its clinical value is supported by such rigorous assessments.

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NURS Week 9 Quiz Answers (Walden) Intravenous carmustine has been prescribed for a patient with cancer. The nurse should help relieve the discomfort of pain and burning during the infusion by.

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I have, however, just been converting something I’ve done before to all-MIMWAL workflows, in preparation for re .

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