We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. I have chosen the topic of stress and coping for my psychology reflection paper. This course provided in-depth information on stress, coping with stress, and the favorable or unfavorable aspects that stress has on our psychological makeup. It also clearly defines the psychological factors that create social dysfunctions, the methods of psychological research, and treatment theories that assist us with stress-related coping.
Abstract Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health.
Psychosocial interventions have proven useful for treating stress-related disorders and may influence the course of chronic diseases. Our central nervous system CNS tends to produce integrated coping responses rather than single, isolated response changes Hilton Thus, when immediate fight-or-flight appears feasible, mammals tend to show increased autonomic and hormonal activities that maximize the possibilities for muscular exertion CannonHess In contrast, during aversive situations in which an active coping response is not available, mammals may engage in a vigilance response that involves sympathetic nervous system SNS arousal accompanied by an active inhibition of movement and shunting of blood away from the periphery Adams et al.
Although various situations tend to elicit different patterns of stress responses, there are also individual differences in stress responses to the same situation. Across a variety of situations, some individuals tend to show stress responses associated with active coping, whereas others tend to show stress responses more associated with aversive vigilance Kasprowicz et al.
Although genetic inheritance undoubtedly plays a role in determining individual differences in response stereotypy, neonatal experiences in rats have been shown to produce long-term effects in cognitive-emotional responses Levine For example, Meaney et al. The increased serotonin activity leads to increased expression of a central glucocorticoid receptor gene.
Interestingly, female rats who receive a high level of nurturing in turn become highly nurturing mothers whose offspring also have high levels of glucocorticoid receptors. This example of behaviorally induced gene expression shows how highly nurtured rats develop into low-anxiety adults, who in turn become nurturing mothers with reduced stress responses.
In contrast to highly nurtured rats, pups separated from their mothers for several hours per day during early life have a highly active hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical axis and elevated SNS arousal Ladd et al.
These deprived rats tend to show larger and more frequent stress responses to the environment than do less deprived animals.
Because evolution has provided mammals with reasonably effective homeostatic mechanisms e. However, if the threat is persistent, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of the response to stress may damage health Schneiderman Adverse effects of chronic stressors are particularly common in humans, possibly because their high capacity for symbolic thought may elicit persistent stress responses to a broad range of adverse living and working conditions.
The relationship between psychosocial stressors and chronic disease is complex. In this review, we focus on some of the psychological, behavioral, and biological effects of specific stressors, the mediating psychophysiological pathways, and the variables known to mediate these relationships.
We conclude with a consideration of treatment implications. Childhood abuse is also associated with negative views toward learning and poor school performance Lowenthal Children of divorced parents have more reported antisocial behavior, anxiety, and depression than their peers Short Adult offspring of divorced parents report more current life stress, family conflict, and lack of friend support compared with those whose parents did not divorce Short Studies have also addressed the psychological consequences of exposure to war and terrorism during childhood Shaw A majority of children exposed to war experience significant psychological morbidity, including both post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD and depressive symptoms.
For example, Nader et al. Some effects are long lasting: Exposure to intense and chronic stressors during the developmental years has long-lasting neurobiological effects and puts one at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders, aggressive dyscontrol problems, hypo-immune dysfunction, medical morbidity, structural changes in the CNS, and early death Shaw Furthermore, there is evidence that stressful life events are causal for the onset of depression see HammenKendler et al.
A study of 13, patients in Denmark, with first psychiatric admissions diagnosed with depression, found more recent divorces, unemployment, and suicides by relatives compared with age- and gender-matched controls Kessing et al.
The diagnosis of a major medical illness often has been considered a severe life stressor and often is accompanied by high rates of depression Cassem In fact, in prospective studies, patients with anxiety are most likely to develop major depression after stressful life events occur Brown et al.
Both these disorders have as prominent features a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death or serious injury and symptom clusters including re-experiencing of the traumatic event e. The time frame for ASD is shorter lasting two days to four weekswith diagnosis limited to within one month of the incident.Discussion: Stress.
So, let's talk a little bit about the science of stress, the psychology of stress, and the physiology of stress. What's going on when you say, "I'm stressed out" – what does that mean from a biological and a cognitive perspective?
Read more» Check Yourself. Describe the three stages of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome. Stress is defined as emotional, mental or physical strain in response to a stressor (event, person, situation, thing).
Stress manifests with particular symptoms such as anxiety, worry, irritability, and difficulty concentrating. Stress can also result in physical symptoms such as increased adrenaline, muscular tension, stomach pain, and exhaustion.
Coping with Stress: There are different ways of coping with stress such as: confronting (facing), distancing (remoteness), self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, escape or avoid (from the stressor), plan a problem solving strategy and positive reappraisal.
This discussion session complements the prior lecture session Stress. Discussion So, let's talk a little bit about the science of stress, the psychology of stress, and the physiology of stress.
Other psychologists say that maladaptive coping is also synonymous to "non-coping", since a person who responds to a stressor using a coping mechanism but isn't able to positively ward off the stressor or solve the stressful situation hasn't coped with the stress . Home» Therapies» Group Therapy: 32 Activities, Worksheets and Discussion Topics for Adults and Teens.
Group Therapy: 32 Activities, Worksheets and Discussion Topics for Adults and Teens.
26 Jul Courtney Ackerman. 19 Comments. Sharing is caring.
Coping with Stress.